Eseguire, interpretare o inventare?

Molti grandi Maestri del passato si sono interrogati su un argomento che ha creato, nell’arco della storia della musica, molteplici diatribe e incomprensioni, dividendo talvolta grandi musicisti in fazioni differenti: l’INTERPRETAZIONE.

Cosa significa “interpretare” un brano musicale? Fino a che punto un musicista può mettere del proprio? Qual è la soglia tra l’interpretazione personale e l’invenzione? E’ giusto eseguire esattamente tutto ciò che il compositore scrive sulla partitura, senza aggiunta alcuna? Se sulla carta non ci sono annotazioni musicali ( dinamiche, arcate, respiri ), dove e quando è possibile stabilirne con certezza l’esigenza?

Tutte le domande riportare precedentemente sono solo alcune tra le perplessità che anelano tra i musicisti nel dover affrontare una nuova composizione ( io stesso mi interrogo con questi quesiti ogni qual volta debba appropinquarmi nello studio di una nuova partitura ).

Ebbene, il presente non sarà un articolo di responso a tali quesiti, ma cercherò, attraverso la mia esperienza personale, di riportare ciò che mi è stato insegnato dai grandi Maestri che ho avuto la fortuna di incontrare nel mio percorso artistico.

Come prima cosa è necessario ( e sottolineo necessario ) e primario collocare la composizione interessata in un ben definito periodo storico, così da poterne determinare esattamente la corrente di pensiero di appartenenza, l’ideologia che ha portato alla sua genesi e i contenuti filosofico-culturali che stanno alla base della stessa ( quindi se si tratta di un’opera di inizio settecento, piuttosto che di tardo settecento o metà ottocento; capire se è tratta da un poema epico piuttosto che da un dramma di teatro, e cosi via ).

Come seconda cosa va inquadrata all’interno del quadro generale delle opere dello stesso autore, cosi da determinarne lo ” stile compositivo ” : taluni compositori hanno mutato, nel corso della vita, modo di comporre, strumentare e creare musica, spesso contagiati da fatti storici accaduti o incontri con altri musicisti contemporanei ( prendiamo come riferimento la sinfonia Eroica di L.v. Beethoven, inizialmente dedicata a Napoleone Bonaparte, soglia di apertura del periodo Eroico dello stesso compositore, cosi definito dai musicologi, ispirato dalla rivoluzione francese e dal senso di libertà e di ricerca di ideali che Napoleone, prima dell’autoproclamazione a imperatore, aveva cosparso nell’aria d’Europa ).

Una volta capito il quadro storico-culturale della composizione, che già ha fornito molti indizi circa il MODO di eseguirla ( per esempio il suono sarà diverso se si tratti di una sonata di Brahms piuttosto che di Bach, in quanto concepite per strumenti strutturalmente diversi ), si passa alla vera e propria ANALISI, che deve essere fatta gradualmente, cosi da capire quanti più dettagli possibile ( verrà presa come riferimento una generica sinfonia ):

  • Individuare la tonalità di impianto della sinfonia e di ogni movimento al suo interno, cogliendo eventuali correlazioni tra esse
  • Effettuare l’analisi formale ( per esempio individuazione delle tre parti e dei due temi se si tratti di una forma sonata bitematica tripartita, delle tre parti, soggetto, controsoggetto e quant’altro se si tratti di una fuga, ecc… ) in modo da avere un’idea generale della struttura del pezzo in esame
  • Procedere con l’analisi armonica che, oltre ad illustrare e mettere in evidenza l’impalcatura sulla quale poggia tutta la sinfonia, aiuterà notevolmente anche l’interpretazione ( una modulazione al VI grado o una cadenza d’inganno dovrà risultare diversa da una cadenza perfetta; una settima diminuita dovrà avere una carica diversa rispetto ad una settima di prima specie; un ritardo o una appoggiatura dovranno avere un appoggio differente rispetto alle relative risoluzioni, ecc..)
  • Eseguire, al pianoforte preferibilmente per garantirne la completezza, l’intera sinfonia, rispettando esattamente i valori ritmici scritti nella partitura, evitando ogni inflessione, indugio o rubato previsto da una ipotetica “tradizione” che grava sul suddetto pezzo; l’esecuzione delle note come scritte è necessaria affinchè si capisca dove si applica una modifica arbitraria a ciò che è di pugno del compositore, anche se questa è sostenuta da manuali 0 trattati che la prevedono ( per esempio la restrizione e la velocizzazione di semicrome in biscrome in alcune composizioni del ‘600, piuttosto che l’anticipo del secondo quarto nell’accompagnamento di un valzer viennese, il rubato in un concerto di Chopin o la piccola pausa sostituita ad un punto di valore )
  • Annotare e conoscere esattamente i metronomi scritti dal compositore, che ci danno agio di estrapolare il carattere che la musica da noi eseguita debba avere ( un metronomo di 120 alla minima ci conferma una velocità notevole e ulteriormente ci viene in aiuto nell’interpretazione, ponendo alla nostra attenzione eventuali problematiche legate ai singoli strumenti nell’esecuzione alla determinata velocità )
  • Rispettare le legature, fraseggi, respiri, dinamiche che troviamo scritte in partitura, oltre alle eventuali annotazioni agogiche o espressive ( morendo, sostenuto, sparendo, sulla quarta corda, e via di seguito )

Quando la conoscenza della partitura sarà completa, si può procedere alla fase successiva, cioè all’interpretazione filologica ( se si tratti di musica del ‘600 o del ‘700 ), basata sulla conoscenza della “prassi esecutiva” che il periodo storico aveva insita ( quelle regole non scritte che ci sono state tramandate attraverso i trattati, i manuali, le annotazioni, le epistole ), oppure all’applicazione della cosiddetta “tradizione”, solo dove essa risulti necessaria. Si prenda come esempio un valzer viennese che, per sua natura, viene eseguito con l’anticipo: questo, nonostante non sia scritto, è di prassi messo in atto in quanto quel tipo di musica è stata concepita in quel modo preciso, e i naturali esecutori della stessa, ovvero i viennesi, hanno insito questo modo di interpretarla, probabilmente detto loro dallo stesso compositore ( vivo all’epoca ).

Qualora si facciano delle modifiche, aggiunte, o si manometta qualsivoglia dettaglio all’interno della partitura, è bene esserne a conoscenza, cosi da sapere che, nel dato punto, si sta agendo secondo la propria discrezione e il proprio personale parere, commettendo una scelta arbitraria ( se pur giusta ), in contrasto con ciò che il compositore in realtà abbia scritto.

Insomma, stabilire con certezza quel labile confine tra  l’interpretazione personale e l’esecuzione corretta spesso è difficile se non impossibile.

Ciò che fa di un’esecuzione una buona esecuzione, è il rispetto della musica e del messaggio che la stessa manda, mettendo l’arte al primo posto e non se stessi. Il musicista altro non è che un vettore, che funge da tramite tra la voce del compositore ( che risuona nella sua musica ) e il pubblico.

Ha ragione Karajan, oppure Abbado? Muti o Harnoncourt? La grande musica è quella che viene ricordata e ognuno di essi ( come ogni altro grande musicista ), a modo proprio, ha saputo farla ricordare.

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